Niacin for the energy metabolism

energiestoffwechsel niacin vitaminb3

Niacin für den Energiestoffwechsel

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One. What is niacin?

Niacin is an important vitamin for the human body. It is also known as vitamin B3 and is water-soluble. Niacin consists of the compounds nicotinic acid, nicotinamide and pyridine nucleotide coenzymes. Humans can produce the vitamin on their own. It is produced from the amino acid tryptophane itself. The production takes place in the liver of the human body. Niacin is involved in many processes. These include cell division and energy metabolism. Niacin is found in all cells of the human organism. In higher quantities it is found mainly in fatty tissue and the kidneys. Niacin is a component of the important coenzymes NAD and NADP. These serve as reaction partners in metabolism and are of essential importance for the human body.

2. the effect of niacin

Vitamin B3 is the building block of important coenzymes in the human body. Only through this can important reactions take place in all body cells. Niacin is absorbed via nicotinamide from food in the small intestine. Niacin reaches the liver via the bloodstream and can be stored there for several weeks. If niacin is needed, the liver activates the stores and can make them available to other tissues. There it can then be used normally. Niacin is also stored in other organs such as the heart and kidneys.

The absorption of niacin can be improved by taking other stimulants. Tryptophan is a provitamin. By taking vitamin B6, the vitamin B3 is produced and the body is thus sufficiently supplied. In addition, the absorption of niacin improves when vitamins and minerals such as iron and magnesium are taken. The conversion promotes the production of niacin.

3 What does the body need niacin for?

Niacin is essential for many different processes in the body. It is needed for energy production in the human organism. Niacin is of great importance for the regeneration of skin, muscles and nerves and the promotion of the formation of messenger substances. These messenger substances are located in the brain and improve the ability to concentrate. Vitamin B3 helps in the utilization of carbohydrates, the building of fats, lipid synthesis and ensures normal digestion. Niacin also participates in many enzyme processes.

Properties of Niacin:

Niacin is...

  • water-soluble
  • heat sensitive
  • light sensitive

4. what are the functions of niacin in the body?

Niacin is responsible for the normal functioning of the energy metabolism in the human organism. The vitamin helps to build up and break down amino acids, carbohydrates and fatty acids. Niacin also influences insulin secretion in the pancreas, which is particularly important for diabetic patients. Through muscle regeneration, niacin helps the body to recover and also ensures the renewal of skin, DNA and nerves. Vitamin B3 supports the production of messenger substances in the brain so that the nerve cells can be transported properly.

Niacin carries ...

  • to the preservation of a beautiful skin
  • to reduce fatigue in
  • for the preservation of the mucous membranes in
  • to a normal energy metabolism with
  • to a normal nervous system with
  • to a normal psyche of the body with
  • to a normal biosynthesis of fatty acids and steroids in
  • to normal blood sugar regulation with

5. the correct dose of niacin

The German Society for Nutrition (DGE) has determined how high the daily requirement of the vitamin should be. The DGE recommends that women take 10-13 mg of niacin per day. Men are recommended a daily intake of 14-17 mg niacin. Teenagers, pregnant and breastfeeding women have a higher requirement and it is important to remember that age, weight and height always play a significant role. Furthermore, factors such as diet and lifestyle should also be taken into account.

Daily requirement of niacin in mg per day:

Infants: 2 mg

Children: 8 mg

Adolescents: 10-17 mg

Adults: 10-17 mg

Pregnant women: 16 mg

Breastfeeding women: 16 mg

6. what foods contain niacin?

Vitamin B3 is found in varying amounts in a variety of foods. Niacin is mainly found in fish and meat. Anchovies, salmon and tuna are particularly high in vitamin B3. In meat, a lot of niacin is found in poultry, lean beef, veal and pork. Offal also has a high vitamin B3 content. In general, it can be said that high amounts of niacin are found in fatty tissue, liver and kidneys. Plants contain only small amounts of the vitamin, which humans can absorb even less than vitamin B3 from animal products. Cereals and coffee beans, for example, belong to the group of vegetable foods. People who follow a vegetarian or vegan diet often have problems to get enough niacin, because the most and best digestible niacin is found in animal products. Taking niacin in the form of dietary supplements can be very helpful in this case, in order to always have a sufficient niacin level. Vitamin B6 and tryptophan are needed for the body's own niacin production. Vitamin B6 is found in many dairy products and poultry, for example. Tryptophan belongs to the peptides and proteins. These are found in soybeans, for example.

Niacin content of food (per 100g in mg)

Anchovy approx. 21

Scheineleber approx. 16

Beef approx. 15

Peanut approx. 14

Chicken approx. 10

Goose approx. 7,5

Tuna approx. 7

Mushrooms approx. 5

pigeon ca. 4,9

Sunflower seeds approx. 4

Trout approx. 3

Redfish approx. 2

cress approx. 1,8

Maize approx. 1,5

Mussel approx. 1

7. how can a lack of niacin occur?

A niacin deficiency can occur if the body receives little or no vitamin B3 from food over a long period of time. People who eat a one-sided diet can no longer supply their body with sufficient vitamin B3. Often people in developing countries are affected, as they are extremely undersupplied and therefore do not have the possibility to supply their body with important vitamins, minerals and nutrients.

Often a niacin deficiency occurs in people who eat a lot of maize. The niacin contained in corn cannot be utilized by the human organism. The vitamin B3, which is found in corn, is only assimilated in the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, the maize protein contains only very small amounts of tryptophane. People who have a niacin deficiency often also suffer from an insufficient supply of all B vitamins and proteins. A lack of niacin can be triggered by chronic diarrhoea and severe alcoholism.

8 Niacin deficiency - symptoms and consequences

Early signs of niacin deficiency can include fatigue, insomnia and loss of appetite. Diarrhoea, vomiting and severe weight loss are common. Depressive moods and irritability can also occur. In rare cases, those affected even complain of dizzy spells. Symptoms of the mucous membranes may also occur. In most cases these are already present in the mouth. With a pronounced lack of vitamin B3, the tongue and the oral mucous membrane can turn red. This leads to increased salivation and martens tongue oedema. A severe niacin deficiency can cause the disease pellagra. Pellagra is a tissue loss of the intestinal mucosa. Many people in developing countries suffer from this tissue loss because they often have a one-sided diet and there is no possibility of a varied and healthy diet. Niacin, which is found in cereals, has difficulty binding to the usable macromolecules (niacytin). However, niacin absorption can also be disturbed by alcoholism or by taking various medicines, thus causing a deficiency of vitamin B3.

Typical symptoms of a niacin deficiency are

  • Skin redness
  • Skin changes
  • Vomiting
  • Constipation
  • Swindle
  • Loss of appetite

    9. How can you correct a niacin deficiency?

    To correct a niacin deficiency, one must know the cause. If you have had a very low vitamin content or an unbalanced diet, you can easily change this. Changing your diet with foods rich in niacin can be very useful. Niacin is mainly found in meat and fish. Niacin from animal products is much easier to process than the niacin from vegetable products. Because the vitamin B3 from animal products is almost completely absorbed. If you are on a vegetarian or vegan diet, you may consider taking niacin preparations (niacin capsules or niacin tablets). Niacin preparations ensure a healthy balance by regular intake. Anyone suffering from severe alcoholism should reduce their consumption. Because increased alcohol consumption damages the liver and causes a lack of niacin. People who have a congenital intake disorder cannot change anything on their own. To ensure a sufficient intake of niacin, these people should maintain their niacin levels by taking dietary supplements. These can be taken in the form of vitamin B3 capsules or vitamin B3 tablets.

    10. what is the effect of a niacin surplus?

    An excess of niacin can be recognized by various symptoms. The affected person may experience a flush with reddening of the skin and a feeling of heat. Symptoms like nausea, vomiting and itching are possible. Continued intake of vitamin B3 can lead to diarrhoea, stomach problems, loss of appetite and even liver disorders. However, the symptoms will slowly subside as the intake of niacin is reduced.

    11. interactions with niacin

    Interactions between niacin and certain drugs are possible. When taking medication for heartburn, diabetes or diuretic drugs, the vitamin can sometimes no longer be absorbed properly. This also applies to oral contraceptives such as oral contraceptives. Fibre and micronutrients also have an influence on the niacin metabolism. These are partly responsible for the formation of niacin.

    12 Niacin: overdose

    Niacin can not only be overdosed by taking dietary supplements, an overdose of vitamin B3 via food is also possible. This can have negative effects. If you take up too much nicotinic acid over a longer period of time, skin itching, a feeling of heat, liver damage and reddening of the skin can occur.

    13. side effects of niacin

    Every person can react differently to the intake of food supplements. Side effects do not have to occur, but can of course happen. In rare cases, hypersensitivity reactions can occur when taking niacin in the form of dietary supplements. Normally, vitamin B3 only causes side effects if the vitamin is taken in excessive amounts, i.e. if the recommended amount is exceeded. The recommended amount of niacin should be around 10-13 milligrams per day. An overdose of about 500 milligrams carries the risk of suffering from a niacin flush. A flush is the sudden dilation of blood vessels. You will feel a sensation of warmth and the skin will blush. However, these side effects only occur when taking nicotinic acid.

    14 Who is niacin particularly important for?

    Niacin is essential for all age groups. However, pregnant and lactating women and young people have an increased need for niacin. This is because babies and small children in particular are in development. Besides niacin, folic acid is also particularly important for pregnant women. Young people should of course also have a daily requirement of niacin and other vitamins and nutrients in order to achieve healthy growth. The earlier children and adolescents learn which foods and vitamins they need for a balanced diet, the easier it will be for them later to eat a healthy and varied diet.

    15. bioavailability of niacin

    Humans can take niacin quite simply with food. Furthermore, the body is able to extract niacin from the amino acid tryptophane and can therefore be used. The vitamin B3, which is bound to protein, must first be broken down. It must also be noted that the usability of niacin from animal products is higher than that of vegetable foods. Anyone taking antibiotics should bear in mind that the absorption capacity of niacin can decrease as a result. An amino acid imbalance can also result from supplementing individual amino acids. Niacin combined with high concentrations of vitamin B2 and pyridoxine can increase bioavailability. Since vegetable foods are less well utilized than animal products, a bioavailability of about 30% is assumed for vegetable products. Nicotinic acid is always in connection with a niacytin complex, which the human body can only process with difficulty.

    16 The correct intake of niacin

    Those who would like to take niacin in the form of food supplements can choose between niacin capsules and niacin tablets. These should be taken with sufficient liquid (for example water or juice). It does not matter whether niacin is taken before or after a meal. However, if you have a sensitive stomach and cannot take niacin tablets or niacin capsules on an empty stomach, you should eat something first and then take the food supplements.

    Niacin Kapseln von Vitamineule

    Our recommendation:
    Vitamin Owl® Niacin capsules

    In our online shop you will find our niacin capsules from Vitamineule®, which are completely free of artificial additives. Vitamin Owl® Niacin capsules (flush free) contain 500mg pure niacin per capsule. Each can contains 90 capsules. In addition to fast & free shipping, we offer a voluntary six month return guarantee for all products.

    17. what is important to know about the dosage of vitamin B3?

    It is important when taking niacin in the form of food supplements that the product was manufactured in Germany. When taking vitamin B3 you should pay attention to the correct dosage. You should follow the recommended amount (daily dose). This is because an overdose of vitamin B3 can also have serious consequences for the body. Vitamin B3 in the form of niacin capsules or niacin tablets should be taken with sufficient liquid (for example water or juice). It does not matter whether niacin is taken before or after a meal. However, if you have a sensitive stomach and cannot take niacin tablets or niacin capsules on an empty stomach, you should eat something first and then take the food supplements.

    18 What is the function of niacin capsules?

    Anyone who cannot manage to eat enough niacin-rich food is at risk of suffering a niacin deficiency. If a treatment of a niacin deficiency is not carried out in the long term, conspicuous consequences can be the cause. Niacin provides for the build-up and breakdown of amino acids, carbohydrates and fatty acids. Furthermore, the vitamin is responsible for the normal function of the energy metabolism in the human organism. In order to replenish its vitamin B3 storage, it is worth taking niacin in the form of food supplements. Niacin capsules and Niacin tablets are available in stores. By taking it regularly, the human organism is supplied with vitamin B3 again.

    19 Which is better: Niacin capsules or Niacin tablets?

    People often ask themselves whether capsules or tablets are the better alternative. Niacin tablets, which are sold in bulk in pharmacies and drugstores, often contain cheap active ingredients and many chemical additives. A variety of fillers and pressing aids are often used to keep the tablet in shape. In general, one should buy niacin capsules without additives, as they can usually hold the active ingredient together in the vegetable capsule shell without artificial additives. Capsules are also generally the most common dosage form. They are easy to handle and to swallow. This means that they can release their active ingredient in the stomach very quickly.

    20 The effect of niacin on cholesterol levels

    For many years doctors have been prescribing vitamin B3 to lower cholesterol. However, only in the USA is niacin used as a lipid reducer. Niacin has a positive effect on cholesterol levels. Nicotinic acid is high-dose vitamin B3, which has a significant fat-lowering effect. The vitamin increases HDL cholesterol and lowers the dangerous LDL cholesterol. The intake should always be discussed in detail with the doctor, as high niacin can also cause a flush. Affected people report reddening of the skin on the face, neck and arms. Furthermore, unpleasant feelings of heat can occur. Nowadays, however, there are preparations that contain a flush inhibitor to prevent these side effects.

    21 Niacin and cell division

    Cell division is an important process in the human body. It is also known as mitosis. Only through cell division can growth and reproduction be guaranteed. In order for the tissue in the body to renew itself constantly, the cells must divide. For this to work, the outer shell of a cell must separate two newly formed cells from each other. This process is called cytokinosis, because it involves the division of the cytoplasm and the cell membrane. This leads to the generation of two daughter cells. During cell division, the genetic material (DNA) is stored in the cell nucleus. Niacin not only supports the metabolic reactions in the cells, but also ensures normal and healthy cell division.

    22 Niacin and the skin

    With the regular intake of niacin, positive effects on the skin can be achieved. The use of niacin shows that less water is lost through the skin and the production of lipids is regulated. Thus the vitamin also has a very good effect on skin ageing. Many people spend a lot of time in the sun, especially in summer. Niacin can protect against dangerous UV radiation on the skin and activate repair mechanisms. Because of its many positive effects, niacin is also used in the cosmetics industry. Niacin is mainly found in skin creams, sun milk and anti-aging preparations.

    23rd Niacin in pregnancy

    Women should also pay attention to their niacin supply during pregnancy. An expectant mother not only continues to take care of herself, but of course also of her child. Vitamin B3 can also be taken as a preventive measure, as the risk of miscarriage is reduced with long-term niacin intake. Babies of mothers who took vitamin B3 during pregnancy suffer less frequently from the skin disease neurodermatitis. During breastfeeding and pregnancy, the body needs more niacin than usual, about 14-16 mg niacin per day.

    24. food containing vitamin B3: storage

    Vitamin B3 is light sensitive, water soluble and heat sensitive. Foods containing vitamin B3 are not only very light-sensitive to the sun, but also react very sensitively to oxygen and acid. If they are stored incorrectly, they can lose their biological effectiveness. If the food is stored incorrectly, up to 50% of its bioavailability can be lost. Food containing vitamin B3 is best stored in a dry place in the dark. Products such as meat should of course be stored in the refrigerator. Since niacin is water-soluble, vegetables should not be cooked for too long in order to retain valuable vitamins.

    25 How can the doctor determine a niacin deficiency?

    A niacin deficiency means that the human body does not have sufficient vitamin B3 available. A vitamin deficiency can have serious consequences. If you want to know whether you have a niacin deficiency, it is best to have your doctor check this. Your doctor will be able to make an initial assumption based on the symptoms and medical history. Most people not only suffer from a niacin deficiency, in most cases they suffer from a general vitamin deficiency. If you suspect a niacin deficiency, you should describe the exact symptoms and complaints to your doctor to make sure that they are actually due to a low niacin level. However, we recommend several tests, as a single test is only a snapshot of your niacin level. Together with the patient, the physician will discuss the appropriate therapy measure. The most common symptoms of niacin deficiency affect the nervous system, skin and digestion. How can the doctor diagnose a niacin deficiency? It is often recommended to take niacin in the form of dietary supplements to replenish one's niacin stores and prevent a recurrence of the deficiency. Especially for vegans and vegetarians this intake is very useful, because a lot of niacin is found in animal products. The physician will also generally advise the patient to eat more niacin-rich food and to avoid stimulants as much as possible. A varied and balanced diet rich in vitamins is essential for good health. It is also very good to do sports, for example in the fresh air. If you exercise a lot outdoors, you activate your immune system and can regulate your metabolism better. This is also a very good way to fight infection susceptibility.

    26. conclusion

    Niacin is a water-soluble vitamin. It is of essential importance for the human organism. Vitamin B3 is absorbed through food and can even be stored for several weeks. The water-soluble vitamin is very important for the regeneration of skin, muscles and nerves and the promotion of the formation of messenger substances. It is involved in processes such as cell division and energy metabolism. Women should consume approx. 10-13 mg niacin a day, men approx. 14-17 mg niacin. Vitamin B3 can be easily obtained through food, for example through poultry, pork or beef. Vegetable foods with a lot of niacin are e.g. cereals. If you have problems covering your niacin requirements, you can supplement niacin in the form of dietary supplements. Vitamin B3 is available in the form of vitamin B3 capsules and vitamin B3 tablets. Taking niacin may in rare cases result in a flush. This is an allergic reaction that becomes visible with itching and skin rashes.

    The difference between nicotinamide and nicotinic acid

    There are two forms of niacin. Nicotinic acid and nicotinamide. Nicotinic acid is a form of niacin which is not well tolerated. Taking nicotinic acid can cause a so-called flush. A flush is the sudden expansion of blood vessels. You will feel a feeling of warmth and the skin will blush. Nicotinamide, on the other hand, is the form of niacin that causes no side effects and no flush. It is important for energy metabolism, the skin, cell division and above all for the metabolism of carbohydrates.


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